Evaluación de la vulnerabilidad al VIH de las estudiantes inmigrantes: un estudio exploratorio de metodología mixta / Assessing vulnerability to HIV of migrant female students: A mixed method exploratory study

Vaishali Gautam, Arun Kumar Sharma, Sanjay Bhasin

Resumen


Antecedentes y metodología

Se ha identificado que las mujeres migrantes corren un mayor riesgo de infección por el VIH en comparación con los hombres migrantes, pero la evidencia es limitada. El presente estudio se realizó entre un grupo novedoso, es decir, una estudiante universitaria migrante, utilizando un enfoque de método mixto para explorar su vulnerabilidad y riesgo de adquirir la infección por el VIH. Se seleccionó una muestra de 100 estudiantes universitarias migrantes de la Universidad de Delhi, de 18 y 23 años, desde marzo de 2015 hasta abril de 2016 y se les administró un cuestionario semicerrado seguido de entrevistas en profundidad.

Resultados

La edad media de inicio sexual fue de 18,7 años. El 21% de los encuestados tenía un conocimiento inadecuado sobre el VIH y el 10% de los encuestados mostraba un comportamiento sexual de alto riesgo, ya que ninguno usaba un condón de manera constante. Estadísticamente, se observó una asociación significativa entre el comportamiento de alto riesgo del encuestado y tener amigos que estuvieron expuestos sexualmente (p <0,005), también con el lugar de residencia actual de la pareja del encuestado (p <0,001). Factores de empuje: mayores oportunidades, presión de grupo y factor de atracción; relaciones sexuales forzadas, conducen a conductas sexuales de alto riesgo. Factores de comportamiento: la incapacidad para negociar el uso del condón, la vergüenza de comprar un condón y el riesgo de autopercepción deficiente aumentaron aún más la vulnerabilidad del encuestado a contraer la infección por el VIH.

Conclusión

Teniendo en cuenta que en la India, las estudiantes migrantes representan un número considerable, por lo tanto, llegamos a la conclusión de que las estudiantes universitarias migrantes son vulnerables, por lo que es necesario centrarse en medir aún más su vulnerabilidad y riesgo al VIH y desarrollar medidas de reducción.


Abstract

Background and methodology

Female migrants have been identified to be at higher risk of HIV infection in comparison with male migrants, but the evidence is limited. The present study was conducted among novel group i.e. migrant female college student using a mixed-method approach to explore their vulnerability and risk to acquire HIV infection. Sample of 100 female migrant college students of Delhi University, of the age 18 and 23 years were selected from March 2015 to April 2016 and administered semi-closed questionnaire followed by in-depth interviews.

Results

Mean age of sexual initiation was 18.7 years. Twenty-one percent respondents had inadequate HIV related knowledge and 10% of respondents showed high-risk sexual behaviour as none used a condom consistently. Statistically, a significant association was observed between respondent’s high-risk behaviour and having friends who were sexually exposed (p < 0.005), also with respondent’s partner’s current place of residence (p <0.001). Push factors: greater opportunities, peer pressure and pull factor; coerced sexual intercourse, lead to high-risk sexual behaviour. Behavioural factors: inability to negotiate condom use, an embarrassment in purchasing condom and poor self-perceived risk further increased the respondent’s vulnerability to acquire HIV infection.

Conclusion

Keeping in mind that in India, migrant female students comprise a sizeable number hence we conclude that migrant female college students are vulnerable therefore requires focus to further measure their HIV vulnerability and risk and develop reduction measures.

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