Consecuencias psicosociales de la generalización de la tortura y la represión sociopolítica en Irán / Psychosocial consequences of widespread of torture and sociopolitical pressure in Iran

Siroos Mirzaei, Homayoun Alizadeh., Seyed Zarei, Reem Alksiri

Resumen


Antecedentes: La violencia y la represión política en general pueden tener un complejo impacto psicosocial en las sociedades. Estudiar estos efectos en países con un alto grado de represión a partir de datos fiables del propio país es difícil, principalmente por el riesgo muy concreto que corre el investigador de ser perseguido.

Métodos y resultados: Los autores desarrollaron una estrategia para integrar los datos disponibles en Irán, de los exiliados supervivientes y de fuentes internacionales fiables para investigar la situación en el país, donde la tortura y la ejecución se utilizan con frecuencia. Los datos sobre las violaciones de los derechos humanos, incluida la violencia contra las mujeres, la persecución de activistas políticos, hasta la tortura y ejecución de adolescentes, son indicadores de la situación sociopolítica y de una estrategia de represión generalizada en Irán en las últimas décadas. Es de esperar que todo lo anterior tenga un impacto sustancial a largo plazo en la salud mental de la población y en otros problemas sociales y económicos, y que cree una carga en la población iraní como resultado secundario de la represión.

Conclusión: Aunque la salud psicosocial general de una sociedad está determinada por múltiples factores, concluimos, a partir de los escasos datos disponibles al interior de Irán, que la represión política no es el único factor, pero se puede suponer que, al menos, contribuye de manera significativa a los crecientes problemas de salud física y mental en el país, poniendo en una posición difícil a los profesionales de la salud.

Palabras clave: Irán, salud mental, tortura, represión, trauma

Abstract:
Background: Violence and political repression in general may have a complex psychosocial impact on societies. Studying these effects in countries with a high grade of repression based on reliable data from inside the country is difficult, mainly due to the very concrete risk for the researcher of being pursued. Methods and results: The authors developed a strategy to integrate available data from inside Iran, exiled survivors, and of reliable international sources to investigate the situation in the country, where torture and execution are used frequently. Data on human rights violations, including violence against women, persecution of political activists, up to the torture and execution of teenagers, are indicators of the sociopolitical situation and of a pervasive strategy of repression in Iran in the last decades. It must be expected to lead to substantial long term public mental health impact and other social and economic problems and to create a burden on the Iranian population as a secondary result of repression. Conclusion: Although, general psychosocial health of a society is determined by multiple factors, we conclude from the very limited data available from inside Iran that political repression is not the only such factor, but can be assumed to be at least contributing significantly to the increasing physical and mental health problems in the country, creating a difficult position for health professionals. Key words: Iran, mental health, torture, repression, trauma

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