Exploración de las razones de la inmunización infantil incompleta en centros de salud seleccionados en Lusaka: perspectivas de las madres y los trabajadores sanitarios de la comunidad / Exploring the reasons for incomplete child immunisation in selected health facilities in Lusaka: Perspectives from mothers and community health workers

Autores/as

  • Eddie Kashinka The University of Zambia, School of Public Health, Department of Health promo-tion
  • Chama Mulubwa The University of Zambia, School of Public Health, Department of Health promo-tion
  • Tulani Francis L. Matenga The University of Zambia, School of Public Health, Department of Health promo-tion
  • Oliver Mweemba The University of Zambia, School of Public Health, Department of Health promo-tion

Resumen

Antecedentes: La inmunización es una de las iniciativas de salud pública más exitosas. La Organización Mundial de la Salud estimó en 2017 que la inmunización evita entre 2 y 3 millones de muertes cada año. Cada día mueren en todo el mundo unos 29.000 niños menores de cinco años, principalmente por enfermedades prevenibles por vacunación. La aceptación de las vacunas con múltiples dosis hasta la última dosis ha sido un problema. La inmunización incompleta contra las enfermedades conduce a la reaparición de enfermedades infantiles prevenibles por vacunación (EPV) y, en consecuencia, a una elevada mortalidad infantil. Este artículo explora las razones por las que el calendario de vacunación infantil está incompleto en el distrito de Lusaka, Zambia. Métodos: El estudio empleó un diseño de método mixto concurrente en el que se utilizaron métodos cuantitativos y cualitativos. Este artículo se centra en los resultados del componente cualitativo, en el que se llevaron a cabo debates de grupos focales y entrevistas a informantes clave con madres y trabajadores sanitarios de la comunidad. Se utilizó el análisis temático para analizar los datos. Resultados: El estudio reveló que, en general, las madres estaban al tanto de las vacunas y conocían sus beneficios. Las razones por las que la inmunización de los niños es incompleta incluyen las percepciones negativas de las madres, como el miedo a los efectos secundarios de las vacunas, y la falta de voluntad de las madres para llevar al niño a vacunar. El mal trato de las madres por parte de los trabajadores sanitarios y diversos factores sociales, como el hecho de que la madre tenga que asistir a compromisos sociales como funerales y bodas, también contribuyeron a que la vacunación infantil fuera incompleta. Los factores económicos, como la falta de dinero para el transporte y el hecho de que las madres tuvieran que acudir al trabajo, son otras razones para que la vacunación infantil sea incompleta. Conclusión: Las razones para la inmunización infantil incompleta reveladas por este estudio reflejan los complejos contextos individuales, interpersonales, de los sistemas de salud y socioculturales en los que viven las madres en su vida diaria. Es necesario desarrollar un enfoque más amplio y multisectorial para mejorar la finalización de los calendarios de vacunación infantil. Palabras clave: Inmunización infantil, inmunización incompleta, madres, vacunas Abstract Background: Immunization is one of the most successful public health initiatives. The World Health Organization in 2017 estimated that immunization averts about 2 to 3 million deaths every year. About 29,000 children worldwide under the age of five die every day, mainly from vaccine-preventable diseases. Uptake of vaccines with multiple doses up to the last dose has been a problem. Incomplete immunization against diseases leads to the reappearance of childhood vaccine-preventable diseases (VPD) and consequently high infant mortality. The paper explored the reasons for incomplete of child immunization schedule in Lusaka district, Zambia. Methods: The study employed a concurrent mixed method design where both quantitative and qualitative methods were used. This particular paper focuses on the results from the qualitative component where Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) were conducted with mothers and community health workers. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Results: The study found that mothers were generally aware of vaccines and knew the benefits of the vaccines. The reasons for incomplete child immunisation include the mothers’ negative perceptions such as the fear of side effects of the vaccines, mothers’ unwillingness to bring the child for immunisation. Bad treatment of mothers by health workers and various social factors such as the mother having to attend to social engagements like funerals and weddings also contributed to incomplete child immunisation. Economic factors included a lack of transport money and mothers having to attend work are additional reasons for incomplete child immunization. Conclusion: The reasons for incomplete child immunisation revealed by this study reflect complex individual, interpersonal, health systems, and social cultural contexts within which mothers live in their daily lives. There is need for more comprehensive and multi sectoral approach to improve the completion of immunisation schedules in children Key words: Child immunization, incomplete immunisation, mothers, vaccines

Biografía del autor/a

Eddie Kashinka, The University of Zambia, School of Public Health, Department of Health promo-tion

The University of Zambia, School of Public Health, Department of Health promo-tion

Chama Mulubwa, The University of Zambia, School of Public Health, Department of Health promo-tion

The University of Zambia, School of Public Health, Department of Health promo-tion

Tulani Francis L. Matenga, The University of Zambia, School of Public Health, Department of Health promo-tion

The University of Zambia, School of Public Health, Department of Health promo-tion

Oliver Mweemba, The University of Zambia, School of Public Health, Department of Health promo-tion

The University of Zambia, School of Public Health, Department of Health promo-tion

Citas

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Publicado

2022-05-31

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Investigación Original